With the advancement of technology, intensive data transfer is increasing day by day. It is very important for the user to move information quickly and efficiently from one point to another. The end of problems such as delay and freezing on the internet of our age has become the biggest expectation of users. Experiments since the 1840s did not anticipate that fiber optic technology would become widespread. Fiber optic was not a favored solution due to high costs and problems in material procurement. Stored and purified raw material glasses are encountered in various parts of our lives to many reactions such as melting and grinding. One of them is fiber optic cables made of glass fiber.
The operation of the fiber cable is based on a reflection event within the finder cable. The given mode number of the fiber; varies depending on the diameter of the fiber core, the wavelength of the size and the size called the numerical aperture. There are two types of basic fiber cables used, single-mode and multimode fiber. Both are used in communication media functions. Fiber optic cable forms fibers through which the bond is carried. Fiber, on the other hand, consists of 3 parts: core, sheath and coating.
They are divided into three according to their structure:
- Glass Fibers: It is a fiber that is completely made of glass, showing the best performance in data transmission.
- Outside Plastic Coated Silicium Fiber: It has a glass core and a plastic sheath. Cheaper performance than glass fibers in terms of price is insufficient and less efficient.
- Plastic Fibers: Completely made of plastic, the lowest performance and the most affordable fiber. Coatings are generally not preferred. It is used for short-distance communication.
Advantages of Fiber Optic System
- Provides very wide bandwidth and transport.
- Optical transport frequency exceeds several hundred Terahertz.
- It does not exceed the thickness of a hair strand, which can be made inside a fiber cable. So no matter how thick it is coated with a protective agent, it has no chance of exceeding the thickness of the conventional copper cable. The reason why fiber usage has become widespread in vehicles such as planes, ships and satellites is its lightweight.
- Since it is an insulating material, problems such as interference and interaction do not occur.
- The distance to carry information without using repeaters is much greater than copper cables.
- Data loss is rare even over long distances.
Privacy and security are important. Transferring information from fiber optic cables is much more difficult than copper cables. Thanks to the fiber optic cables, which were put into use with the contribution of these advantages, internet networks were established, electronic information transmission was facilitated, and digital libraries were created; information is delivered as soon as possible. The biggest disadvantage of fiber systems is that the initial cost of installation is higher than other systems. However, experts predict that the costs of fiber systems will decrease considerably in the near future.
As a result, in the information age in the exam, the fiber optic system that transmits more information from a single line at a very high speed is a technology that can help us.